Trenchless Pipeline Management
Aug 17, 2006
Urban lifelines are the assets of the society and trenchless techniques provide avenues for Management of such assets which otherwise are being left neglected and deteriorating rapidly. Urban pipelines, when conceived, were meant to provide passage to fluids like water, rain runoff, sewage, petroleum, or other energy products. Primary consideration of employing a pipeline for such transportation has been that such mode yields the most economic and viable as the fluid flowing through them is not exposed anywhere and therefore there would be very slim chances of it getting polluted or polluting the environment en route to the intended destination.
Initially let us talk about the actions within the fluid conduits. The conduit provides a continuous passage so that the intended fluid moves freely and reaches the destination. This in turn means that the fluid must have enough pressure so as to reach such locations. In pressure mains or distributaries such pressure is provided by pumping in contrast the gravity flow lines develop pressures by slopes alone. Whatever may be the type of pipeline, the pressure needed to assist fluid to flow should be sufficient so that the fluid is able to overcome the pipeline surface friction and the retardations due to elevation changes.
Designing a pipeline calls for evaluating the required optimum pipe size including plate thickness jointing materials and their strength including interference avoidance. Sizing operations are dependent upon evaluating the applied stresses and selecting a section strong enough to take such stress without failure. In conventionally laid pipelines the pipe sections are assumed to withstand the following forces/stresses:
- Internal fluid pressure;
- Fluid hammer pressure;
- Flexural stresses;
- Stresses due to external loadings;
- Temperature stresses;
- Longitudinal stresses due to direction changes;
- Stresses due to Torsion loading.
As outlined in the previous section pipelines are to be selected, sized, designed, and fabricated as per the end requirements as well as the erection and installation conditions. Material selection therefore is a part of pipeline design and for Trenchless application it is one of the most important activities in designs as any failure of pipeline due to material failure leads to complete network failure. The common pipeline materials can be classified under the following groups and subsequent subgroups:
- Multi component Materials
- Composite Construction
- Polyester Resin Concrete
- Polyester Resin Concrete
- Reinforced Concrete
- Steel fibre concrete
- Fibre cement
- Glass reinforced plastic
- Composite Construction
- Non-metallic inorganic
- Vitrified clay
- Bast bassalt
- Ductile iron
- Cast iron
- Polyethylene, PE-X
- Poly vinyl chloride-U
The next unforeseen part is the geotechnical surprises. These surprises are dealt under geotechnology, which is a branch of civil engineering concerned with soil or rock as a subsoil and structural material and with the means for investigating its condition and structural utility for construction and functional structures.
Developing an asset is only one part of pipeline management; renovation and renewal are two major portions of pipeline management activities without which the job of a Manager is incomplete. These activities are undertaken to replace, rehabilitate, upgrade or renovate a pipeline to provide a new economic life to an old pipeline. Management of subsurface networks of smaller diameters requires application of trenchless techniques in a major way and therefore the knowledge of these techniques is an imperative tool for pipeline managers.
With the above background the Indian Society for Trenchless Technology (IndSTT) has entered into an understanding with Kielce University of Technology, Faculty of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Poland (KUT) for imparting technical training in trenchless sector leading to award of a diploma titled as Trenchless Pipeline Manager (TPM) being awarded jointly by KUT and IndSTT.
- Microtunnelling and pipe jacking
- Horizontal directional drilling (HDD)
- Impact moling and ramming
- Optimum choice of trenchless pipe laying methods
- Pipes in trenchless pipe laying technologies (jacking pipes and pulling in pipes)
- Designing of pipelines for trenchless pipe laying
- Trenchless renovation and replacement of pipelines
- CCTV inspection of pipelines
- Inspections and renovation of sewer collectors of large diameter
- Trenchless repair and sealing of pipelines
- Trends in the range of trenchless technology application
- Static strength calculations of the pipelines
- Strategies of trenchless renewal of sewerage and water supply pipelines
- Design of the construction of renovation coatings
- Plastics in underground infrastructure
- Laboratory testings of pipes
- Trenchless methods of cable laying
- Structural expertises of pipelines
- Trenchless testings of pipelines
- Pipes made of rigid and elastic structure
- Criteria of optimum choice of material and structural solutions of pipelines
- Chosen problems of geotechnical engineering
- Utility tunnels
Today's a large portion of subsurface utility network development and management activities in India and other South Asian nations are devoid of trenchless applications. An optimization of processes and economization of scarce resources can be successfully achieved if trenchless techniques are also considered in the technique selection process.
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