Master plan for a sustainable supply and disposal infrastructure of mega cities - Part III
Dec 07, 2006
This is the third and last part of the technical report series "Master plan for a sustainable supply and disposal infrastructure of mega cities". It deals with materials and methods of construction as well as other concepts of multiple installation besides utility tunnels and will also provide the superordinate summary.
As described in the previous, second part, the utility tunnel does not only solve many of the presented problems but also provides the most economical solution if such structures are considered within the scope of a generation contract. Apart from all advantages, such concepts must be integrated into the already existing and highly used underground infrastructural space. This produces great demands on the construction process. A short overview of the possible technologies is presented in the following.
In operation, the structural shell of the utility tunnel has the following functions:
- Withstanding the external loads
- Sealing against seepage, pressure and precipitation water, roots as well as external influences.
- Open cut method: The open cut method is characterized by the excavation of a pipe trench, creating the structure in the protection of a slope or a lining and then filling the excavation again.
- The trenchless method: The trenchless method is characterized in this case by an underground creation of the utility tunnel. The path can be accessed via starting and target shafts. In the trenchless method, the utility tunnel, depending on the selected method, can be constructed by the jacking of pipes of larger nominal size (Figure 1), by shield tunnelling with segmental linings (Figure 2) or by tunnel and gallery headings with subsequent installation of an inner shell of in-cast or spray-on concrete or by means of reinforced concrete prefabrications in the opened cavities.
- Semi-opened method of construction: the semi-opened method of construction is an intermediate method between open-cut and trenchless methods of construction. It is basically suitable for the installation of prefabrications with a closed cross section, i.e. of pipes or box profiles.
Laterals, also called service pipes, are understood in this case to be lines which lead from the connection point of the supply pipe or the sewer in the utility tunnel through the structural shell (wall) to the user.
- Installation in a host pipe
- Installation in a utility duct
- Installation in a utility tunnel.
- Time-saving by coordinated execution
- Customer-friendly due to a reduction of contact persons
- Place-saving due to a central wall or floor plate entry point into the building
- Cost reduction – only one pipeline trench for all supply lines on the private property
- Later pushing-in of the supply lines through colour-differentiated empty pipes into the house possible.
- Trouble-free replacement of the supply lines through the empty pipe system.
However manifold the applications of a utility tunnel may be, there will always be limiting conditions that make its use uneconomical. However, this does not mean the return to the single installation of sewers and pipelines; it rather leaves the door open for further alternatives in the form of multiple installation.
Host pipes are underground non-man-accessible or man-accessible pipes for later installations of several product lines or casing pipes of the same or different types. Host pipes are not accessible to people after the installation of all lines (final installation).
- Loose installation in the host pipe
- Bundled installation in the host pipe
- Group installation.
Utility ducts are underground installations for ordered installation of supply and discharge lines using the structural shell for fastening the lines or supporting them with the aid of wall plugs, multiple fasteners or pipe supports. In order to obtain later access to the lines, the remaining space is not filled.
- To withstand all external loads such as earth and traffic loads, water pressure, plane loads, strip loads, point loads,
- Sealing against seepage, pressure and rainwater, root growth as well as external influences,
- Acceptance of the planned lines according to number, type and dimension,
- Ensuring the operational needs as regards the installed lines, including gradients, expansion, venting, flushing, micro-climate and prevention of mutual influences.
The use of man-accessible sewers for the multiple installation of other lines is no novelty. The sewers of Paris (Figure 7) have served, since their installation in the 19th century, also for the accommodation of water and compressed air lines which are situated in the upper part of the sewer which remains free even at maximum flow of the cross section designed to be man-accessible. This variant is currently the subject of an investigation being carried out by the engineering consultancy of Prof. Dr.-Ing. Stein & Partner GmbH, Bochum, with the aim of developing new combined residential and business regions.
In the 21st century, the city will be the most important place of residence for people. The qualitative as well as the quantitive demands this makes on the technical infrastructure of the city will present an enormous challenge to the urban and regional congested areas all over the world for a long time in order to ensure a secure and adaptable supply of water, gas, electricity, district heating, modern telecommunication services, etc., as well as the provision of an environmentally friendly disposal system.
- adapt their networks in accordance with the customers wishes
- to react simply to new technical developments and
- to integrate new lines into the overall system.
- Drill and dowel method,
- Clip ring method.
- Vitrified clay,
- Fibre cement,
- Polymer concrete,
- Plastics (PE) with fusing techniques (dowels are fused in place).
 Holzmann AG Frankfurt: Fördertunnel Kiel. Tiefbau-BG (1993), Vol. 4, 216-221.
 Company information Takanaka Civil Engineering & Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan.
 Company information Doyma GmbH & Co., Oyten.
 Stein, D.: Grabenloser Leitungsbau. Berlin: Ernst & Sohn, 2003.
 Adolph, H.-J., Schwebler, R.: Planung und Errichtung eines ca. 450 m langen, nichtbegehbaren Versorgungs-/Energietunnels (Düker) im Bereich des Neckar in Heidelberg. FGR Gussrohr-Technik 33 (1998), 14-19.
 Stein, D.; Schoesser, B.: CargoCap – A Vision becomes Reality. Tunnel (2002), issue 3.
 News release: Barcelona transportiert Abfälle unterirdisch. Zeitung für kommunale Wirtschaft (ZfK) (2003), October.
 Heierli, R.: Planungen mit Ver- und Entsorgungsstollen. Dokumentation ATV-Workshop „Undichte Kanäle“, 1990, 73-91.
 Company information JT elektronik GmbH, Lindau/Bodensee, Germany.
 Beyer, K., Röling, M.: Was haben wir gelernt? – Zwei Jahre Kabel in deutschen Kanälen. bi-umweltbau (2000), Vol. 2, 48-52.
 Company information KA-TE System AG, Zurich Switzerland.
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