Future technologies of trenchless renovation of the pipelines which have earlier been no-dig renovated
Apr 20, 2007
Trencheless technologies of building and renovation of pipelines have been successfully applied in Poland for many years. After historical economic and political change in 1989, when the socialistic system was abolished, Polish economy started to develop very dynamically, including the branch connected with building, enlargement and renovation of underground infrastructure.
- Design mistakes which can result in choice of the coating of too little range or not resistant to failure,
- Application of improper technology, including choice of an improper material of the coating,
- Executing mistakes or renovation performance inconsistent with the project.
The very important factors which determine the frequency of the future trenchless renovations of the pipelines are: durability of the applied material of the pipeline and durability of the material used for its trenchless renovation.
The factors of basic importance for elongation of the first and the most important term – fig.1.- (between pipeline building and its first renovation) are listed below:
- The quality of materials used for pipe construction and (in case of some kinds of pipes) in additionally applied protective covers,
- The quality of pipeline laying,
- The way of pipeline exploitation.
There are many examples of trenchless renovations in Poland as well as in other countries, which ended with a failure. In Poland, most of these unsuccessful renovations are caused by:
- Application of the renovation coatings with too small load capacity, which are not resistant for loss of its stability or their improper placing in the renovated pipeline. The example of such renovation is presented in fig. 3. Here, for renovation of 1200mm reinforced concrete sewer pipe, structural PE-HD pipes 1000mm in diameter were used. The PE-HD pipe chosen for renovation was designed properly but the space between pipes wasn’t filled with cement mortar. This filling was one of the assumptions of static – strength calculation, which allowed to choose the given pipe for renovation with a specified circular stiffness. Very soon after renovation – a year after- PE-HD pipe failed (the bottom of pipe rose up to the top) as a result of ground water pressure, because the water filled the free space between pipe and old sewer immediately after renovation. In fig. 3a PE-HD pipe after failure is shown with the sewage flowing on the both sides of the risen bottom. In fig. 3b the same pipe is taken out onto the surface. The cross section, visible in fig.3b, has partly gained its original shape – less deformed than in fig. 3a.
- Appearances of leaky joints in short pipe modulus used for renovations. In fig. 4 the example of such a leaky joint in structural PE-HD pipes used for renovation is shown. Accretion after infiltration is visible on pipes joints.
- Application for renovation of pipes made of improper material, e.g. with to small thermal, chemical or abrasion resistance,
- Application of close–fit lining renovation with the incorrectly chosen diameters, for instance applying too large diameter of coating in close fit U-liner technology. In this case the coating can’t get back into circular shape and that causes its deformation and leads to cracking. The example of damaged close-fit PE-HD lining is shown in fig.5a. In fig.5b the example of improperly chosen materials for liners impregnated with resins is presented - foil doesn’t adhere to polyester liner impregnated with resin. The following two figures describe: fig. 5c inappropriate process of resin liner toughening and fig. 5d insertion of resin liner into the wrong place.
- Lack of eventual investor supervision during the renovation work, what can lead to abnormality during installation or even application by constructor of other substitutes, e.g. cheaper solutions, which differ from the project
Considering the mentioned examinations (Kuliczkowska E. 2005) and the expertise (Kuliczkowski A. 2004, pp. 54) one can claim, that plastic is the material which, when improper installed, might cause a lot of problems during its potential renovation. Plastics pipelines have many advantages but their inappropriate application, transport, storage or mistakes in design may speed up their potential renovation or replacement. Their renovation might be difficult in execution or even unworkable. The examples of such abnormalities are shown in fig. 6 and 7. In fig. 6 the example of improper choice of pipe material (here PVC), not suitable for the conditions in which it should work, is presented. PVC pipe, 200mm in diameter, visible in fig.6 was installed on a steep and sunny hill, where the temperature differed from -300 in winter to +500C in summer. The result of such big temperature difference was the accelerated aging of pipe material, what in consequence led to its failure (after 20 years after installation). Trenchless renovation of such seriously damaged and deformed PVC pipe is currently impossible, among other, because of the necessity to guarantee the minimum diameter of sanitary sewer, which equals 200mm.
- Properly calculated project, including right choice of ring stiffness
- Appropriate choice of material, suitable for condition of pipeline exploitation; one should remember that high temperature, big difference between operational temperatures, or increased pressure will reduce the time of pipeline use and will accelerate the aging processes,
- Providing the proper conditions of storage, transport and pipe installation,
- Careful investor supervision during pipeline building, which prevents the contractor from the application of the other e.g. cheaper or not suitable solutions or application other parameters of installation.
Analysis of the described above unsuccessful renovations indicates that during the design process one should take into consideration some additional criteria:
- Criterion of maximum elongation of material – structure durability solutions applied in pipeline renovations,
- Operational criterion, which allows to execute the next future renovation by using as many as possible available techniques,
- Criterion which allows in the future building up the connections or laterals in the renovated pipeline and which enables to find and precisely localize the possible leakage.
The 16 years of experience from CCTV inspections (Kuliczkowska E. 2005) and expertise of sewer construction (Kuliczkowski A. 2004, pp. 54) led by Technical University in Kielce, anxiously evidences of occurrence of the many pipeline damages, (especially in case of pipes made of plastic), even right after their installation or trenchless renovation.
Kuliczkowska E. 2005, ‘Wyniki badan nowo wybudowanych przewodow kanalizacyjnych z rur PVC’, Gaz, Woda i Technika Sanitarna, no 10, pp. 16-20
Kuliczkowski A. 2005, ‘Bezwykopowa odnowa rurociagow i kanalow juz wczesniej bezwykopowo odnowionych’, Materialy konferencyjne, Politechnika Swietokrzyska, Kielce pp. 193-200
Kuliczkowski A. 2004, ‘Ekspertyzy konstrukcyjne przewodow wodociagowych podstawa doboru optymalnych technik ich bezwykopowej odnowy’, Inzynieria Bezwykopowa no 4, pp 54
Kuliczkowski A. 2004, : Rury kanalizacyjne, Projektowanie konstrukcji, Monografia no 42, vol.2 Politechnika Swietokrzyska, KielceMitteilungen Verband Zertifizierter Sanierungs- Berater für Entwässerungssysteme (E.V.) VSB 2003, Empfehlungen für kommunale Kanalnetzbetreiber zur Ausschreibung von Sanierungsleistungen, bi Umweltbau, no 3, pp. 73-74
Insituform Culvert Renewal Combating The Effects of Age on Our Roadway Systems, available:
Reports of National Transportation Safety Board Washington, D.C. 20594, Pipeline Accident Brief
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